DEFINING TERMS

Title IX

DEFINING TERMS

Sex Discrimination 

  • Sex discrimination includes all forms of sexual harassment, including verbal or nonverbal sexual harassment and gender violence by employees, students, or third parties against employees, students, or third parties.
  • Sex discrimination also includes unequal pay based on gender, discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, unequal distribution of athletic funds, and unequal admissions.

Gender Violence 

  • The term “gender violence” reflects the idea that violence often serves to maintain structural gender inequalities and includes all types of gender-based violence. This type of violence may influence or is influenced by gender relations.
  • Gender violence includes rape, sexual assault, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual harassment, and stalking. 

Rape

  • Rape is nonconsensual intercourse that involves the threat of force, violence, immediate and unlawful bodily injury, or threat of future retaliation and duress. 

Sexual Assault 

  • Sexual assault is broader in definition than rape. Any nonconsensual act may be considered sexual assault.

Effective Consent 

To engage in a mutually consensual relationship, effective consent by both parties is required and consists of:

  • Being informed; 
  • Freely and actively given consent; 
  • Mutually understood words or actions; and
  • An indicated willingness to participate in mutually agreed upon sexual activity. 

Sexual Harassment 

  • Unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature. Includes verbal and nonverbal behaviors and actions. 

Dating Violence 

  • A pattern of abusive behaviors used to exert power and control over a partner. This violence can be physical, sexual, emotional, spiritual, economic, or psychological. 

Domestic Violence 

  • Crimes of violence committed by a current or former spouse or intimate partner of the victim, by a person with whom the victim shares a child in common, or by a person who is cohabitating with or has cohabitated with the victim. 

Stalking 

  • Stalking is a pattern of behavior that makes one feel afraid, nervous, harassed, or in danger. A stalker may repeatedly contact, follow, send gifts, force unwanted conversations, or threaten.